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How We Figured Out Fermentation 

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Thanks to a recent adaptation, instead of getting sick from the boozy, fermented fruits, one of our primate ancestors could digest them safely, and get more calories at the same time. This new superpower would open up a whole new nutritional landscape for us: fermented foods.
Special thanks to Julio Lacerda ( JulioTheArtist) for the excellent fruit and ape ancestor illustrations for this episode!
Additional illustrations by Jack Byrley ( bedupolker) and Fabrizio de Rossi ( ArtofFabricious/)
Check out our human evolution learning playlist: iritem.info/auto/PLi6K9w_UbfFSxHPEDWcXxIxSA6gDR4OeZ.html
And thanks to Sheridan Gibson for helping edit this episode!
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: iritem.info
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References: docs.google.com/document/d/10pFzQ3_BCUFlhuZ-V6PWqMHhueTuwIWPcjo3kDYJmNQ/edit?usp=sharing

علم و فناوری

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2020 13 اوت

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Pendolino Fan
Pendolino Fan پیش 13 ساعت
Yes a very drunk ape 🍷🍊🫒🥴🥴🦧🦧
Kathy L
Kathy L پیش 3 روز
If something was too sour, could it mean it isn’t fermented properly and might have harmful bacteria?
ХОРОШО
ХОРОШО پیش 7 روز
7:54 A family just walking near dangerous animals, lol.
Student A Fake
Student A Fake پیش 8 روز
I was told my great grand father discovered fermentation.
karsten69
karsten69 پیش 10 روز
I'm so hungry for pickles right now.
Doc Dog
Doc Dog پیش 17 روز
I never heard of ADH4 like that ... I have heard of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase/NADH for for ethanol metabolite though 🤓
valiroime
valiroime پیش 18 روز
Too bad I never developed a taste for alcohol.
Gaming with Lacks Agency
Gaming with Lacks Agency پیش 19 روز
Inuit eat fermented walrus that they bury and put large rocks on to prevent polar bears from stealing them
999九九九999
999九九九999 پیش 23 روز
Fun fact : some microbes kill themselves because they can’t handle its own alcohol
Eric Lawrence
Eric Lawrence پیش ماه
5:11 what is that leaf wrapped pink foam food?
Kevin Potts
Kevin Potts پیش ماه
And the candidate for the most disgusting EONS is.......
KFC Official
KFC Official پیش ماه
Our ape ancestors ate rotten fruits on a Saturday night..
Gilbert Mozell
Gilbert Mozell پیش ماه
The sweet news chemically impress because fold dentsply rot past a study. half, debonair garlic
Wesley Qumuaqtuq
Wesley Qumuaqtuq پیش ماه
Shows Pork for fermentaion when talking boat Inuit culture. All you had to do was show any kind of fish. The community hall when the have the feast for fermentaion food smells rankedd like you leave the place smelling like it.. Oh well just happy mention Inuit
Wesley Qumuaqtuq
Wesley Qumuaqtuq پیش ماه
That 2nd imagine definitely wasn't partly frozen fish with skin left on so yeeaa, couldn't tell it was even fish
MarganaS Reimer
MarganaS Reimer پیش ماه
I used to live on a small farm that had an enormous mulberry tree. Every year, bushels of mulberries would drop to the ground and ferment. Every creature from deer to bears to hornets would flock to that tree and get humorously wasted. They'd stagger around and fall down and sleep it off. We never went near that tree because you didn't know what was lying in a drunken pile.
Arturo Bonilla
Arturo Bonilla پیش ماه
Seriously... who the hell is Steve..what does he know?
Geoffrey Stevens
Geoffrey Stevens پیش ماه
Beer. More beer. Let us all follow our ancestors!
Leo Alpha Productions
Leo Alpha Productions پیش ماه
You don’t have a lot of requirement for ascorbic acid when your intake of carbohydrates is little to none. A diet high in carbohydrates requires more vitamin c because they use the same pathways in the body (glut receptors). In the absence of carbs, you can get away with very tiny amounts of vitamin c because there’s nothing out competing it. Which means you can eat meat, fish and organs, and they have more than enough vitamin c to prevent scurvy.
Serron Serron
Serron Serron پیش ماه
I can drink to that.
Allen Sams
Allen Sams پیش ماه
Fermentation is the oldest method of preserving food. It's present in ALL of earth's cultures. . .
HUJAMBO Korodani
HUJAMBO Korodani پیش ماه
bien
Rajah O'bagal
Rajah O'bagal پیش ماه
oh i like this guy!
Nem um dia de paz
Nem um dia de paz پیش ماه
Who is Steve
tracey adkins
tracey adkins پیش ماه
🤮 like they got sooo sick of just eating out the side of a dead animal like a lion. You had a picture that evoked a unusual smell memory of the scent of muskrat furs drying in fur buyer’s barn 30 years ago 😮
Miss Me
Miss Me پیش ماه
My friend's dog liked to eat the fermented apricots on the ground in her yard. He was always getting drunk monching the fruit off the pits, and ignored the ones that just fell.
patrick howden
patrick howden پیش ماه
If you are saying monkeys made their own brand of JD, you are nuts.
sue lane
sue lane پیش ماه
What about the contents of a herbivores stomach? Wouldn't that have vitamin C and a preserving acid?
Carlos Odin Gutierrez
Carlos Odin Gutierrez پیش ماه
Indeed, they say that meat is harmful because its toxins, but those toxins never get made if we have a good gut bacteria that make acid lactic instead od cadaveverin.
Ian Boughey
Ian Boughey پیش ماه
I think we had strong guts that could breakdown anything
Cashdummy
Cashdummy پیش 2 ماه
There is a german anthropolgist who argued that the whole reason civilizations started in the first place was: nomads can't grow fruits and cereals to make alcohol. Oh yes, and it is probably true!
no robot
no robot پیش 2 ماه
or maybe we taste sour to avoid un ripe fruits????
Victor Koropeckyj
Victor Koropeckyj پیش 2 ماه
“Brad Leone has entered the chat”
AlXnight
AlXnight پیش 2 ماه
We probably started farming because we wanted to deliberately ferment things into alcohol
J K
J K پیش 2 ماه
We have arrived in the area of science where everything's a stretch and we're just telling stories.
SRWill64
SRWill64 پیش 2 ماه
But what about people who feed their DOGS beer and the dog doesn't get sick? Has this been a practice for thousands of years, too? Umami might also have evolved from the smoke flavor that many meats were preserved with because dried meat lasts longer and smoke was a way to keep flies away from it.
Khaprikorn
Khaprikorn پیش 2 ماه
Can we just talk abt how a dead horse in a lake smelling like cheese made him hungry
Paul Bourdon
Paul Bourdon پیش 2 ماه
I was rotational grazing my cattle in an apple orchard and moved them into one paddock with a lot of drops that had been there for a few weeks. Needless to say the cows immediately went after the fermenting apples then I saw one barf, she was ok but … I figure I should rotate them a little quicker through the parts that were really dropping apples. :^)
Erlyk Dalkien
Erlyk Dalkien پیش 2 ماه
Tastes are so weird. Look into the durian fruit as an example. Everyone seems to smell and taste it very differently. I can barely smell garlic or onions. I didn't even know garlic was spicy until I chewed a raw clove. Raw....I can't smell either of them. Cooking, I get a whiff....but it's never overpowering. I fucking love vinegar based foods. I was also the kid that would eat lemon. I can't handle spicy hot at all. Salty is also an issue. Lightly salted I am cool with.
d00d
d00d پیش 2 ماه
Me breaking into a zoo to get drunk with my ape homies
Mike Smith
Mike Smith پیش 2 ماه
The need to do a video on the first person to smoke weed
Thesaurus Rext
Thesaurus Rext پیش 2 ماه
i am kinda hungry jokes aside
Sebastian Mantuano
Sebastian Mantuano پیش 2 ماه
Fermented foods: Microbes ate and shitted in it.
Nettle
Nettle پیش 2 ماه
Ew, meat... Gross.
brofenix
brofenix پیش 2 ماه
Hmm!!
relentlessmadman
relentlessmadman پیش 2 ماه
drunk is sort of a sickness??????
Gregg Robinson
Gregg Robinson پیش 2 ماه
People really need a deeper appreciation of science. When you start to understand what it tells us, you realize there are more astonishing miracles in a spoonful of dirt than in all the holy books ever written.
C L
C L پیش 2 ماه
So if this is fact than what about the facts that man and ape lived side by side ? And why aren’t we seeing intelligent creatures evolving ? Fact is animals are as smart today as they was 10 millions years ago. The only one that gains intelligence is man. Think about that?
François-Xavier Dessureault
-yo how tf am I supposed to represent elevated pH levels breaking down vitamin C in a split second? -don't worry about it man just make that yellow C disappear who even cares
KoMaHu3λM
KoMaHu3λM پیش 2 ماه
keeping those algorithms happy..
peter dollins
peter dollins پیش 2 ماه
possibly the survivors of rotton fruit might have been our ancestors and of the apes. the others died.
Guy Gadbois
Guy Gadbois پیش 2 ماه
our ancestors didn't have refrigerators, so the best way to keep milk around is to ferment it into cheese or yougurt. Cucumber? preserve it as pickle. Grapes? ferment as wine. soybeans? miso paste... etc
Guy Gadbois
Guy Gadbois پیش 2 ماه
fermentation product is waste product, but we like it, tastes good, we're just eating other creature's waste. Juts like dung beetles n flies n waterbugs eat our waste.
Alfonso Munoz
Alfonso Munoz پیش 2 ماه
Great episode!
Ost san
Ost san پیش 2 ماه
Alcohol has been humanity's friend for millions of years. It would be rude for me to turn my back on it.
0xDEAD
0xDEAD پیش 2 ماه
ngl but i really got hungry
Bobby Nguyen
Bobby Nguyen پیش 2 ماه
Nem chua at 5:10. Random example lol
Blake Kincaid
Blake Kincaid پیش 2 ماه
Covid has taught me preservation of calories is amazing. Making your own wine is cheap and worthwhile.
Caleb
Caleb پیش 2 ماه
i cant belive people ate a horse im disliking and un subscribing
Palmetto NDN
Palmetto NDN پیش 2 ماه
So hungry you could eat a fermented horse?
Canadian Longboarder
Canadian Longboarder پیش 2 ماه
Mmm got me hungry for some rotten horse now.
Wyatt Miller
Wyatt Miller پیش 2 ماه
Why do I hate fermented foods though
Fundamental Fanatic
Fundamental Fanatic پیش 2 ماه
because you can eat fresh food easily. fermentetation was invented via desperation. you get your harvest once a year. and you need to find a way to keep it eatable until next harvest. fermentation is relatively easy to do, and people figured out that they dont get sick after eating fermented food. its cool to think about. someone found a pot of fermented food, it smelled and looked vile but he was so hungry that he tried to eat that out of desperation. he didnt get sick and survived the winter.
Drew Harrison
Drew Harrison پیش 2 ماه
MILKWEED IS NOT BITTER. The literature is wrong. They all used Euell Gibbons (a famous wild foods author) as a source and he was wrong. The thought is that he mistook spreading dogbane (which is very bitter) for common milkweed (which is slightly toxic when raw but NOT bitter). It's actually quite delicious steamed with a little butter or olive oil.
Niji no shita
Niji no shita پیش 2 ماه
that is so interesting! for some reason I never expected fermented food to be that early in our diet... though now that you mention it it does make sense!
Charley Howarth
Charley Howarth پیش 2 ماه
From the days of simple monke bois, we as a species have collectively been alcoholics
Roger Sledz
Roger Sledz پیش 2 ماه
Thank you so much for uploading this video. It is helping me get through the pandemic!
Roger Sledz
Roger Sledz پیش 2 ماه
Masks PROTECT YOU and people around you!
nothing to see here move along
I just watched 3 different videos and you commented the same thing on all of them
P P
P P پیش 2 ماه
I love science there is always a story. Difference between it and religion, the latter has someone watching us from the couds. Where is science, all work was already in the making. Evolution chose a monkey to show us the way. And neither has laboratory evidence. Not needed for dogma. Back to our advanced technology, we need to kill carbon, its cousin Co2 and its friend virus19.
that kid who loves fighting
APE NOT MONKEY
funknfritter
funknfritter پیش 2 ماه
much good charcuterie is fermented meat. that old world salami or spanish chorizo? fermented. We eat it all the time.
Nick Kline
Nick Kline پیش 2 ماه
“So, humanity, how did you evolve” D R U G
Marie Loiseau
Marie Loiseau پیش 2 ماه
Literally the only safe way to eat fruits and vegetables if you're a human.
D. A. B.
D. A. B. پیش 2 ماه
Alcohol should be illegal, it takes more lives every year then every disease combined .. But who cares right let's keep helpful medication illegal and leave one of the major downfalls of society at your local corner store.
bad manager
bad manager پیش 2 ماه
Vinegar itself is a product of fermentation. So vinegar is low on nutrition value, but the liquid or squasch fermented from probably not.
Mr. Coldfire
Mr. Coldfire پیش 2 ماه
And by golly, don't you dare take our fermentation away. The 20's was a prime example of that.
dubistverrueckt
dubistverrueckt پیش 2 ماه
Salami, summer sausage, prosciutto, jamón serrano, chorizo and so many others that are now expensive delicacies are fermented meats (raw, uncooked, yes, but very very delicious!)
Glittering Sunshine
Glittering Sunshine پیش 2 ماه
Surprises? OK, question: What's worse than finding a worm in an apple? ... Answer: ... ... ... Ready? ... ... ... Finding half a worm in an apple.
Glenford Burrell
Glenford Burrell پیش 3 ماه
It's rumoured that saukraut has the highest concentration of vitamin C.
Kafiyo
Kafiyo پیش 3 ماه
I don't like fermented foods... yuk, they taste off!
John Curtis
John Curtis پیش 3 ماه
You see...fermentation is the proof that it's a fine line between Stupid and Brilliance. John~ American Net'Zen
Woolworth Davis
Woolworth Davis پیش 3 ماه
One of YOUR primate ancestors because we did not evolve from your apes. You’re still talking that nonsense in 2021
Jessica Evans
Jessica Evans پیش 3 ماه
I will never call it urmammi.
Alexthejaewd
Alexthejaewd پیش 2 ماه
Why not?
Jessica Evans
Jessica Evans پیش 3 ماه
Tell me more about this "ethyl alcohol". *Swigs hennessy*
Ucan Ashtar
Ucan Ashtar پیش 3 ماه
It seems like we invented or discovered alcohol before inventing the wheel. Maybe that's why we invented the wheel. As they say invention is from necessity
WISE MAN CHRONICLES
WISE MAN CHRONICLES پیش 3 ماه
RIP to the guy who ate that horse for us to see if it's actually safe.lmao
Cheap Trick Fanatic
Cheap Trick Fanatic پیش 3 ماه
Fantastic video!
Honda's are faster
Honda's are faster پیش 3 ماه
Fermentation gave the world alcohol, one of the worst drugs to ever be invented
Alexthejaewd
Alexthejaewd پیش 2 ماه
@Honda's are faster didnt know about those stats in australia, but fermentation shouldnt be blamed for others abusing stuff. You cant use crack for anything besides getting high, but you can use alcohol for a ton of stuff. Sure its a poison but you also use poisons like drain cleaner to unclog stuff. Its a poison that is easy go acess and easy to abuse. But ignoring its usefullness is in my opinion a bad judgment.
Honda's are faster
Honda's are faster پیش 2 ماه
@Alexthejaewd wrong, im not talking about any other uses but its destruction as a drug. In Australia 170 people die each year from amphetamines or speed/ice whereas 6000 people die from alcohol. It is responsible for so many bad statistics, hell we've even got a one punch law or cowards punch because of people drugged on alcohol and king hitting people to death. The experts now class alcohol as Australia's worst drug and i totally agree with them..
Alexthejaewd
Alexthejaewd پیش 2 ماه
It also gave up ways to sterilize, and modifications of the prosess now allows us to create medicins and fuels and more. Alcoholism is sad and painful, any kind of substance abuse/adiction is. However i think with its usefullness its far from the worst drug out there.
Rj Murray
Rj Murray پیش 3 ماه
a comment because interactions are good! I love PBS
DJ D
DJ D پیش 3 ماه
And, that hominid’s name was Jedediah Pelosi
OmegaWolf747
OmegaWolf747 پیش 3 ماه
That little ape ancestor just wanted to get smashed.
Cata-what?
Cata-what? پیش 3 ماه
now I want to try some of that experimental horse meat
No
No پیش 3 ماه
mmmm lake horse
Amadis Demitrius
Amadis Demitrius پیش 3 ماه
Animals eat fermented fruit and get drunk all the time. This video suggesting ancient primates discovered this is just stupid.
Alexthejaewd
Alexthejaewd پیش 2 ماه
Think this was more just talking about the discovery just with the human aspect to it, how we humans started using it. Not suggesting other species dont
charjl
charjl پیش 3 ماه
I'd like to try some of that fermented meat
Anthony Martin
Anthony Martin پیش 3 ماه
We still have fermented fish and fermented fish based foods. Surströmming is fermented Herring Fish Sauce Worcestershire sauce
Algernon Calydon
Algernon Calydon پیش 3 ماه
Techniques like fermenting meat is still used by many people like Alaska natives. They have an even better thing than fermented horse. It's called stinky heads, where they take salmon heads and bury them at mid tide level on the beach and leave them for weeks.
nachoisone
nachoisone پیش 3 ماه
So we are eating enzyme fecal matter?!
Ben Allen
Ben Allen پیش 3 ماه
Ah yes. The evolution of the party animal.
Star Valkyrie
Star Valkyrie پیش 3 ماه
That's what I call freezing a dead horse.
Just Vienna
Just Vienna پیش 3 ماه
The first ape the ate the first rotting fermented orange and survived was probably hailed as a deity by its tribe
Lucas Mckenzie
Lucas Mckenzie پیش 3 ماه
Mmm tasty germ poo.
JacarandaMusic
JacarandaMusic پیش 3 ماه
My windfall apples used to get the tops pecked off by birds leaving a ragged cup shape with a lot of the inner apple pecked out. Then it rained. A few days later, cider.