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The Reign of the Hell Ants 

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This ancient species had the same six legs and segmented body that we’d recognize from an ant today. But it also had a huge, scythe-like jaw and a horn coming out of its head. This bizarre predator belonged to a group known as “hell ants.” But they’re gone now, and we’re still trying to figure out why.
Please see the pinned comment for a disclaimer on the ethical issues surrounding Burmese amber in paleontology.
The thumbnail is an illustration of Haidomyrmex by Franz Anthony. Thanks to Franz (franzanth.com) and Ceri Thomas (nixillustration.com/) for their Hell Ant illustrations featured in this episode!
And special thanks to Phillip Barden and David Grimaldi for providing images from their paper on Cretaceous ants:
Barden, Phillip and David Grimaldi. “Adaptive Radiation in Socially Advanced Stem-Group Ants from the Cretaceous” Current Biology, February 22, 2016 www.cell.com/current-biology/pdfExtended/S0960-9822(16)00041-5
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: iritem.info
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References: docs.google.com/document/d/1V5P1Aq5U3FrkA9Gpu9Ze91InpadVCiQ2Ig7q1J_vN-k/edit?usp=sharing

علم و فناوری

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2021 21 ژانویه

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PBS Eons
PBS Eons پیش 3 ماه
Hey Eons fans, We just want to let you know that we’re aware of the ethical issues surrounding Burmese amber in paleontology. The specimen of Ceratomyrmex that we describe in the introduction comes from a paper by Barden and colleagues published in 2020, and the authors included the following note about it: “The specimen - from the Hukawng Valley, Kachin State, Myanmar - was deposited in the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NIGPAS) prior to the 2017 military control of some mine regions (work on this manuscript began in early 2017). The fossil acquired by NIGPAS was collected in full compliance with the laws of Myanmar and China including Regulation on the Protection of Fossils of China. To avoid any confusion and misunderstanding, all authors declare that the fossil reported in this study was not involved in armed conflict and ethnic strife in Myanmar. The specimen is deposited in the public repository NIGPAS and is available for study." We also tried to follow the guidance of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology on Burmese amber in choosing our images for this episode and not use any images of fossils/amber “collected in or exported from Myanmar since June 2017.” Thanks for watching!
L
L پیش ماه
@julian shepherd Asking the real questions
Allan Richardson
Allan Richardson پیش ماه
Thanks for the Amber Alert!
julian shepherd
julian shepherd پیش 2 ماه
Are we the Hell Apes ?
Kylie Schultz
Kylie Schultz پیش 2 ماه
🖤🧡🧡🧡🇫🇯
Joshua Zeeman
Joshua Zeeman پیش 3 ماه
@friedman designs you understand that the government pays private contractors to build road and have an agreement to allow the public to use roads. Similarly, insurance, outside of Medicaid and Medicare, is almost entirely private and definitely not socialism. Just because the government is involved in something doesn't mean that it is socialism.
sHam Artist
sHam Artist پیش 6 ساعت
Kinda makes you think of the Chimera Ant
Mike Jones
Mike Jones پیش روز
I love ants!
Nathaniel Anderson
Nathaniel Anderson پیش 4 روز
They were all killed off by Angel ants.
Nathaniel Anderson
Nathaniel Anderson پیش 4 روز
Maybe the Hell ants grew wings and became wasps and bees.
RioluMan
RioluMan پیش 4 روز
The description of potential early ants strikes me as rather similar to some of the queenless species of the Poneromorph subfamilies. While there are still clear eusocial elements present such as limiting the number of potential gamergates, they certainly seem less developed than in other species. If such behavior was the default for ants in the past, it would suggest that eusociality evolved multiple times in the order Hymenoptera.
kris wilkinson
kris wilkinson پیش 8 روز
If there is one hell ant and several worker ants in one piece of amber, could it be the hell ant is a body plan for a soldier caste in the same species as the workers?
Beetle Juice
Beetle Juice پیش 8 روز
I like how she just throws out a random number. "Theg where alive 20 million years ago."
2l84t
2l84t پیش 5 روز
Other than your spelling there is nothing random about her statement.
Salter's Stuff
Salter's Stuff پیش 10 روز
4:12 oh lawd he comin
Jeremy Stuart
Jeremy Stuart پیش 10 روز
I like her pin
João Miguel Azoia
João Miguel Azoia پیش 12 روز
WHERE IS STEVE???
Ramiro Quijano
Ramiro Quijano پیش 16 روز
Have they mated or merged with other ants?
Kye JT-R
Kye JT-R پیش 16 روز
so are ants the epitome of communism?
ARJUN kr
ARJUN kr پیش 18 روز
Climate affect birth
J C.
J C. پیش 20 روز
She's my favorite presenter on this series.
PB GV
PB GV پیش 23 روز
The number of ants increased greatly and scientists aren't sure why but it mightve had something to do with that there were more of them
Dalton v
Dalton v پیش 23 روز
Jurassic Park+A Bugs Life crossover? let's gooo
Charlotte C
Charlotte C پیش 25 روز
🎵Alexander Hamilton🎶
Squaul DuNéant
Squaul DuNéant پیش 26 روز
I would like to see thoses ants :c
eckosama
eckosama پیش 26 روز
So this was which part of the Chimera ant arc? cuz I want to know when phagogenesis
Brandon
Brandon پیش ماه
Crazy how any species of ant can go extinct. They are so abundant and to have 17 different ones do so is insane. Didn't think anything could push ants to extinction.
Jak Alam
Jak Alam پیش ماه
A video on ancient Cockroaches would be interesting to watch
Mark Hollas
Mark Hollas پیش ماه
I wonder that since the vertical mandibles of the hell ants made them good hunters then they where more independent in their way of life. Ants with horizontal mandibles make them able to accomplish various tasks and thus started to synchronize with others to achieve better sustainability.
NPLT
NPLT پیش ماه
Has anyone considered if Hell Ants migt have just been a sort of soldier caste?
ponti117
ponti117 پیش ماه
Those modern bastards are stealing my cat’s food, and his litter. I don’t know what the hell are they building but I’m scared. What if they are preparing for war and I’m the target?
Sexysaurus Rex
Sexysaurus Rex پیش ماه
1996 was 25 years ago?! Whaaaaaat
Shiboline M'Ress
Shiboline M'Ress پیش ماه
Maybe the "hell ants" were rather like today's bulldog ants in that they were large and agressive, but had smaller colonies with less cast diversification.
Trip D
Trip D پیش ماه
Who names all these things?
Justin
Justin پیش ماه
I wanna be encapsulated in sap
Geoffrey Stevens
Geoffrey Stevens پیش ماه
I'm kind of happy that hell ants are not around today because I already have four species of ants living in and around my house in Mindanao Philippines, including fire ants. It's lucky that the fire ants usually live outside!
Beetle Juice
Beetle Juice پیش 8 روز
It is your wold, we just live in it.
T. Gross
T. Gross پیش ماه
Hey eons Can you make a video of how and why colony forming species have evolved, like bees or ants? That would be awesome!!!
Liam Johnson
Liam Johnson پیش ماه
so basically ants discovered communism
Julio Rosal
Julio Rosal پیش ماه
Hell ants or Helions? Dont know if accents to blame or something
Sean Carter
Sean Carter پیش ماه
I like her voice =)
Insect Invasion
Insect Invasion پیش ماه
I think they might have behaved like billet ants where they are so powerful that they just go out alone
Kaefer1973
Kaefer1973 پیش ماه
"The precursors to full usociology were Insects that worked whithin a nest, more like a co-op and not an enormous colony" Aren't there still wasps like that, multiple singular breeding wasps in a big nest all individually raising their own larvae rather than the wasp species with Queens? Seems to be a sucessfull model if it's still around, maybe these ants had another problem like the mentioned overspecialisation, or maybe if you aren't fully usocial, you really want to keep the gift of flight.
Tahzib Hussaini
Tahzib Hussaini پیش ماه
a video on Earth's failure to kill off all women's enemy cockroaches
SciBear
SciBear پیش ماه
The relatedness of individuals in ant colonies (and in other hymenopteran insects like bees and wasps) is complicated by the presence of haplodiploidy in these organisms. Because males in these groups arise from unfertilized eggs, they are haploid (only one copy of the genome) and their genetic contribution is essentially identical in each of their progeny. Because of this, female progeny (workers), which arise from fertilized eggs and are thus diploid (two copies of the genome), carry 100% identity with their father, and 50% identity with their mother, the queen. This makes their relatedness to each other 75%, which is greater than their relatedness to their mother. If care for the young is a function of genetic kinship, it follows that workers will care for their baby sisters more than the queen, and are not actually being altruistic in caring for "another's" offfspring.
Gp-15 /4
Gp-15 /4 پیش ماه
Biologically, scientifically, and maybe ethically speaking Is it possible to bring them back?
chris
chris پیش ماه
maybe it was a specialized worker for catching larger intruders, the smaller ones could then dismantle it. those jaws could not cut plant material, probably a discontinued design. love these videos.
badass t-rex
badass t-rex پیش ماه
Ants are fAntastic..
vogonp 42
vogonp 42 پیش ماه
Looking at these guys make me a little ANTsy.
Grant Flippin
Grant Flippin پیش ماه
They probably lost their face bits because it's kind of dumb to have a muscle that could move really well in one direction but it actually moves poorly in 2 directions.
ender slot
ender slot پیش ماه
Hey what would happen if ants learned farming..... you know just saying
Firebolt Prime
Firebolt Prime پیش 28 روز
See: leaf cutter ants
Deep SKULL
Deep SKULL پیش ماه
I WAS HOPING THIS IS ABOUT THE NASTY OLD LADY NEXT DOOR MAKING YOUR LIFE HELL, BUT ANTS FROM HELL SOUND WAAAAAAASAAAAY NASTEH-ER
NeblogaiLT
NeblogaiLT پیش ماه
These ants seem to be specialised to hunt one bug per ant, while other ants hunt in herds (thus can hunt wider variety of animals, from small to much larger).
Evil Pimp
Evil Pimp پیش ماه
Ever since I was a kid, I have always helped ants. I should get myself an ant farm
Alexander Melchers
Alexander Melchers پیش ماه
The disappearance of the hell-ants sounds like of like marine reptile evolution during the Mesozoic. That is, a lot of morphological variability at the beginning of their evolutionary track, followed by a dying off of the weirdest and more specialised species, to result in more generalist and more uniform species afterwards. This lack of morphological variability, however, is also a risk, though, if ever the clade is put under environmental stress.
Matthew Chenault
Matthew Chenault پیش ماه
I have a bit of a hypothesis for why "Hell Ants" might be found in smaller numbers: They are, for the lack of a better term, adopting the "wasp" strategy of survival. Instead of having tons of offspring that, on an individual level, are weak, they had a smaller number of offspring with greater flexibility in their roles. More importantly, it seems that most of these ants were predatory ants in nature. This is awfully similar to how modern-day wasps function. Wasps, unlike their bee cousins, have adopted a survival strategy of predation. Their colonies are much smaller (maybe only a few hundred members) compared to bees ( usually having thousands of members), but they have evolved to act as predators with offensive stingers and tough mandibles. They also attack and kill other hive species, such as European honey bees, as a major food source to help grow their colony. A good example would be the highly aggressive Japanese Giant Hornet, which often attacks and slaughters entire colonies of bees to rob them of their honey as well as the bee corpses to help fuel their growth. More likely than not, the "hell ants" were an evolutionary divergence from the typical ant colony to develop wasp-like behavior. They most likely preyed upon the ant colonies, as well as other types of insects, to help fuel their smaller colonies with protein.
sirhandelno3
sirhandelno3 پیش ماه
I don’t care if they’re extinct, if I see one on my arm I’m smacking it. Keep them away from me
Ryan duffy
Ryan duffy پیش ماه
watching ants always makes me itchy
Dominic Manester
Dominic Manester پیش ماه
I don't think colonies got bigger and then they were more successful, I think it is far more likely that success is what made colonies grow. "Hell ants" were probably less well adapted and then ended up outcompeted or outright exterminated by other ants. This extermination is probably why so little diversity exists in ants today. We already know that ants aren't afraid to go to war with other nearby colonies if they get too close.
Brett K
Brett K پیش ماه
survived 20 million years then all die off across the planet seems odd!
WREFMAN
WREFMAN پیش ماه
Weengs
Akim Smith
Akim Smith پیش ماه
The cool thing about ants is they way they recognize their sense of self. If you put a dot on an Amy’s head and place them in front of a mirror, They will try to clean it off.
m k
m k پیش ماه
Ants and uncles XDD
Helmuth Arthur
Helmuth Arthur پیش ماه
When antwars breakout you kinda badoff with those hellantjaws:)
Sebuky
Sebuky پیش 2 ماه
do you call them dad jokes in english? xD those are the best
xWagnerPlaguesx
xWagnerPlaguesx پیش 2 ماه
That's the name of my next album. The Reign of the Hell Ants.
Richard Aponte
Richard Aponte پیش 2 ماه
Fire 🐜's upset thinking they were the baddest.
thelinedrive
thelinedrive پیش 2 ماه
A thought: perhaps the hell ant isn’t it’s own spieces, but instead an extinct cast of ant that existed in a time where eating other insects was key for the colonies survival.
Magma Fang
Magma Fang پیش 2 ماه
Still confused how ants can lift so much relative to its body size
Aldon Dekock
Aldon Dekock پیش 2 ماه
The kindly east molecularly launch because hail independently flash beneath a sore century. unequal, sweltering secretary
Stuart Schaffner
Stuart Schaffner پیش 2 ماه
Just a thought: for tightly organized but large colonies to form, there has to be a kind of immunity for a colony. This would prevent hybrid colonies with mixed genes and perhaps as a result clashing social structures. Modern ant colonies have a system where each ant emits a scent specific to the genetic makeup of the queen. Soldier ants, the equivalent of macrophages, will attack and destroy any ant that doesn't match the scent that identifies the colony. Note that big colonies didn't develop until after the appropriate scent gland appeared.
tofu teh
tofu teh پیش 2 ماه
Distribution of labour? Worker co-opts? Damn ants are pretty based
Emmerson Bechaz
Emmerson Bechaz پیش 2 ماه
If there is hell ants, where are the heaven ants?
Willy Wonka
Willy Wonka پیش 2 ماه
Hell Ants discovered Capitalism, and it was every ant for itself, until they ate themselves to extinction
An Hoang
An Hoang پیش 2 ماه
This is my theory why they extinct. If there were several species of hell ant in one place this could mean they are hyper agressive.
Bootyclap69k
Bootyclap69k پیش 2 ماه
BERGER also this lady doesn’t understand ants, worker ants aren’t supposed to be mating, it’s only the queens so it’s redundant to say that they are sterile
Phreak is OP
Phreak is OP پیش 2 ماه
In 5000000 years : the reign of the hell humans
••Plantsicle••
••Plantsicle•• پیش 2 ماه
The day hell struck on earth
Aeturnalis
Aeturnalis پیش 2 ماه
That is why i live with 500 roommates, one of which is constantly pregnant, and we eat everything we can catch... don't want to be extinct, like the hell ant.
FunOnTheBun
FunOnTheBun پیش 2 ماه
All ants except for queens and males are sterile and take care of their sisters
tom novy
tom novy پیش 2 ماه
Those ants really were from hell,wherent they?
Ben Dover
Ben Dover پیش 2 ماه
The coolest part is that, we observe Great Apes, apart from Orangutans, are eusocial, just with a patriarchal structure instead of matriarchal like ants and mole rats.
Abdul Qahhar
Abdul Qahhar پیش 2 ماه
Even ants live better than us humans
sumlinteronne
sumlinteronne پیش 2 ماه
I love ants by far favorite insects
TheTop HatNerd
TheTop HatNerd پیش 2 ماه
*immediately gets walking with beasts vibes*
hettyscetty 97
hettyscetty 97 پیش 2 ماه
Did this video make anyone else itchy?
Vonn KilluCo
Vonn KilluCo پیش 2 ماه
It's almost cute how she says wings, weengs.
Anna Rowe
Anna Rowe پیش 2 ماه
Can you please make a video about when Elephants had 4 tusks?
Nicely Dunwell
Nicely Dunwell پیش 2 ماه
I've got a couple of hell aunts that infest the house every year from Thanksgiving to Christmas.
Patrick Vroman
Patrick Vroman پیش 2 ماه
7:39 "Ants and uncles"
Shadow Realm
Shadow Realm پیش 2 ماه
Can we rename them to predator ants
MrBargill
MrBargill پیش 3 ماه
A what? geez that spelling................
Scniff Kenauser
Scniff Kenauser پیش 3 ماه
the ants went corporate
James Aron
James Aron پیش 3 ماه
Dinosaur ants
hostronic
hostronic پیش 3 ماه
Would love to see more videos on prehistoric flora and how plants have evolved over time.
scott lee
scott lee پیش 3 ماه
If I keep watching your videos, I might just know more than I did'nt when I was born! Thanks!
Chuckle Honeybear
Chuckle Honeybear پیش 3 ماه
I'm sure glad i didn't live 99 million years ago
Barry Steven Young
Barry Steven Young پیش 3 ماه
Why don't they call male ants 'uncles'?
Explity
Explity پیش 3 ماه
Cool communist ants!
iamacaterpillar
iamacaterpillar پیش 3 ماه
what happened to steve..he was my favorite eonthologist...
Clint S.
Clint S. پیش 3 ماه
We need a scientific “Ant Week.” Similar to shark week, but cooler.
Suspicious Hetalia Enjoyer
If only someone would rate them professionally...
sophy van
sophy van پیش 3 ماه
i don't believe the story. all made up story. where are the proofs ?
sophy van
sophy van پیش 3 ماه
ants are stupid that is why they cannot fly like bees.
Vijay Nair
Vijay Nair پیش 3 ماه
I have a hell aunt. She constantly judges the way I live my life. She also rags on me about not being married yet. She also has a killer mandible, which she uses to bite people she doesn’t like.
skeletorrobo
skeletorrobo پیش 3 ماه
The new ants came on the meteor, taking over...
Rob Bleeker
Rob Bleeker پیش 3 ماه
QUESTION.. To get babies, obvious you are going to need one female (The Queen) and one male, and usually the baby will inherit the traits of the parents. BUT, ants that infertile, will not produce offspring, now I doubt that ants developed Artificial Insemination. You are telling us that all ants in a colony are born for one particular role, so....DOES THIS MEAN that Ants have the ability to decide what type of ant they are going to raise, from its humble begins from a sperm (I guess that male ants have sperm)?