When Rodents Had Horns 

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These odd rodents belong to a genus known as Ceratogaulus, but they’re more commonly called horned gophers, because, you guessed it, they had horns. And it turns out the horns probably had a purpose - one that rodents would likely benefit from today.
Samantha Hopkins’ 2005 paper on Ceratogaulus with figures featured in this episode (Thanks, Samantha!): royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2005.3171#d3e609
Thanks to Ceri Thomas (nixillustration.com), Lucas Lima (252mya.com/gallery/lucas-lima), R. Bruce Horsfall, and Roman Uchytel for allowing us to use their wonderful paleoart in this episode.
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: iritem.info
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References: docs.google.com/document/d/1-PyJkHPaRl2bAV83lNJBXWfFTDlg-6Npz-zyGSRTpds/edit?usp=sharing

علم و فناوری

تاریخ انتشار


2020 15 سپتامبر





افزودن به:

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Rachel C
Rachel C پیش 2 روز
Omg, please don't ever make the screen unexpectedly blurry ever again! 🤢
UglyBoi69 Macsack
UglyBoi69 Macsack پیش 12 روز
Holup she has a tatoo?
Corncracker Kid
Corncracker Kid پیش 24 روز
Are these also known as ROUHs? Rodents Of Unusual Horns?
Martinz and homieS Gaming
Martinz and homieS Gaming پیش 25 روز
When ratatouille got horny
zeeslag123 پیش ماه
"Every weasel's got a plan, until they get gopher horned in the face" - Mike Weasel
Tikay’s Cake
Tikay’s Cake پیش ماه
Her voice is so satisfying. I can listen to horned rodents all day now
GP Me پیش ماه
These titles be getting me
Ryan Willmon
Ryan Willmon پیش ماه
Praise the great horned rat
Eucep پیش ماه
Kinda curious if the horns were solid or if they were hollow on the inside. If hollow it could be a sound thingy.
Karl Slicher
Karl Slicher پیش ماه
Probable anti snake adaption. Mammals and birds of prey haven't devolved past the ability to portion bites of food.
Josh_da_boss_ hello
Josh_da_boss_ hello پیش 2 ماه
Mountain beavers eat a lot of the same stuff beavers do. I’ve ran into a few awhile ago way up near Willamette pass. They’re really cool.
Jared Quinney
Jared Quinney پیش 2 ماه
Aeturnalis پیش 2 ماه
They missed a great opportunity not calling them Damnsters or Belphegophers or Ratzuzus
Ryan Goss
Ryan Goss پیش 2 ماه
Sigmar save us!
Ricardo Minniti R. Pereira
Now we only need to find one with wings and Wolpertinger is confirmed!
Kevin Byrne
Kevin Byrne پیش 3 ماه
0:17 -- "The Killer Rabbit" of Monty Python and the Holy Grail
Rj Murray
Rj Murray پیش 3 ماه
keep em comin!
Lori Spicer
Lori Spicer پیش 3 ماه
Its cool to know we use to have an animal like this on earth, n its not just a fictional animal from the movie "Ice Age"
monique odile
monique odile پیش 3 ماه
No loud music interfering with your voice... thank you.
Cristina Lasala
Cristina Lasala پیش 3 ماه
Nidoran fans: Nidorans go brrr
David Anderson
David Anderson پیش 4 ماه
Holy crap! Triceramice and rhinocerats!!
Jose Hernandez
Jose Hernandez پیش 4 ماه
So the Great Horned Rat is real.
Kinky Bon-Bon
Kinky Bon-Bon پیش 4 ماه
Maybe they wanted to be goats
RR Smith
RR Smith پیش 4 ماه
Can you tell us what Squirrels evolved from
mirthenary پیش 4 ماه
Makes you wonder what a horny beaver would look like 🤣
Max Xam
Max Xam پیش 3 ماه
Oh, you...
Xeno Idaltu
Xeno Idaltu پیش 4 ماه
If they had grown into gigantic versions then they would resemble Giant Ground Sloths but with horns!
Chris Ball
Chris Ball پیش 4 ماه
The other thing that occurred to me was that they might be good for digging into the roof of its burrow, which could make it harder to dislodge by predators or rivals. If something tried to drag it out of its tunnel, it could stick its nose up in to the roof, push down with its feet, and it'd be very hard to extract from there. Wombats adopt a similar defensive strategy- when threatened, they dive head-first into their burrow. They have extremely tough, leathery rear ends and very powerful kicks. Predators can't seriously injure them by biting their rumps, and get repeatedly clawed in the face if they try. If Caratogaulus had a similarly well-protected rear, it could lodge itself firmly in its burrow using its horns, and smaller predators would probably not want to spend too long trying to drag it out, in case they made themselves vulnerable to larger ones in the process.
Chris Ball
Chris Ball پیش 4 ماه
I struggle to believe that a creature with those teeth and claws would have wasted its time trying to poke a predator with some stubby little horns. It's already equipped with much more powerful weapons, so what use would they be? And if it only had weak eyesight and relied more on its other senses, then why waste energy growing big appendages to protect them? I think there's got to be some other explanation. We're only left with the skeletons of these creatures, so sadly will probably never know if there were other soft tissues on top of the horns. I presume paleontologists would be able to tell if they were anchor points for muscles to make its jaws or neck stronger and discount that idea, but it might still have had some kind of fleshy lump attached to them that was a better shape for digging with.
Erin Murphy
Erin Murphy پیش 5 ماه
Whomever it is that does the editing, they find beautiful art. Excellent work as always!
C Brown
C Brown پیش 5 ماه
So they couldn't fight each other with the horns but they could fight off predators with them?
Shawn Davis
Shawn Davis پیش 5 ماه
*Burp* "Morty, I revolved horns to deter predators, Morty. I'm squirrel RIIIIICK!"
Tim Yoshi
Tim Yoshi پیش 5 ماه
STEVE????!!! Glad he's alive and kicking :)
Eric Brown
Eric Brown پیش 5 ماه
What a badass tattoo. Never would've expected a fossil nerd to have a half sleeve. Dang.
HEXAGER پیش 5 ماه
Paleontologists: Rodents had horns! Warhammer fans: *BIG* *HORNED* *RAT*
Just Some Guy with Sunglasses
It surprising how natural the horns look in them
William Koch
William Koch پیش 5 ماه
Until you said these only survived until 5 ma I was thinking these may have inspired myths that eventually became corrupted into jackalopes... Then I became sad, because I no longer have any ideas, other than maybe these rings vanishing from the fossil record quite a ways before they actually went extinct, which would hardly be the only time that happened, but...
amelia liana
amelia liana پیش 5 ماه
myky992 پیش 5 ماه
Max Matiash
Max Matiash پیش 5 ماه
dam you guys used the same "gopher it" joke I use literally every time I write or say "go for it" conversationally
R K پیش 5 ماه
The horns would also potentially injure a predator’s mouth upon trying to bite the rodent in the head.
Arctic Dino
Arctic Dino پیش 5 ماه
1:05 The one in the back looks so smug
FLM پیش 6 ماه
Call em devil gophers
AlienGuy16 پیش 6 ماه
What about the jackalope?
HAVYN88 پیش 6 ماه
Looking for an offering of warpstone.
YGF_ Goku
YGF_ Goku پیش 6 ماه
In 10,000 years from now, y’all are gonna make an episode about 2020 and what it did to mankind. I’ll bet 1mill‼️‼️😭
santiago parera
santiago parera پیش 6 ماه
aaah yes... the rat-trap rat
Kayleigh Wukovich
Kayleigh Wukovich پیش 6 ماه
Forever respecting this channel for the dedication to the Natives
Father_Liberty_ پیش 6 ماه
I just want to sleep... stop giving me videos that keep me interested
jedi foghorn
jedi foghorn پیش 6 ماه
The horns were used by the kids riding on parents back for slingshot practice.
Justine پیش 6 ماه
Why so little views this episode was great!
Daniel S
Daniel S پیش 6 ماه
If horns helped them to survive better than their non-horned relatives, they descendants would still be around.
Trevor Eklof
Trevor Eklof پیش 6 ماه
Look at this dude look at the top of his head
rose پیش 6 ماه
lots of skaven jokes to be made here
Nido Hime
Nido Hime پیش 6 ماه
5:50 But there are many things that go agaisnt the anti theory: 1. Many horned animals have horns in both sexs, not just one. 2. Some horned animals, like rhinos, have short necks but fight with each other by lifting the rival from under the chin or the chest. 3. The bad eyesight excuse is still flawed when even rhinos are known to have bad eyesight too! 4. Even if the don't fight each for mating there are other ways to atract mates, for examples some small species of antilope can secreted a odorous sustance wich they cover bushes and rocks to mark their presence. It could even being posible they rub their faces in one object and then rubbed their horns with said substance. Also did those rodents still be able to use their "hands" to groom themselves? Then it proves the idea even further.
James Fowler
James Fowler پیش 6 ماه
What about resonating chambers for audible detection
Evan Wetzel
Evan Wetzel پیش 6 ماه
Callie is adorable. I love eons.
Account Name
Account Name پیش 6 ماه
The host looks a lot healthier than when she started
SGT MAYHEM پیش 6 ماه
Just when I think that I’ve got a pretty good handle on things, something like a horned gopher pops up. A very cool video PBS, well done.
Stakeout Rockhound
Stakeout Rockhound پیش 6 ماه
Why do sharks have dorsal fins?
Stakeout Rockhound
Stakeout Rockhound پیش 6 ماه
OK, so how does this happen without Lamarquism?
Will Dougherty
Will Dougherty پیش 7 ماه
I'm confused by how the gophers used the horns for defense. If they had stiff necks, how could they have bent their necks enough to fight off predators? Was it a visual defense? Thanks!! :)
No Name
No Name پیش 7 ماه
Is this the ancestor the famous Jackelope? Lol
UmbreonTwinkle پیش 7 ماه
Why I am I watching this when I know I'll eventually get to a prehistoric animal that will scare me. I dunno why but this stuff I find interesting but at the same time, I find a picture or 2 that scares me
kapthana. پیش 7 ماه
Am I the only one disturbed by background Music? Never had that problem with pbs videos
dave maximo
dave maximo پیش 7 ماه
This means that it's not impossible for humans to have horns before
Gao XiangShuai
Gao XiangShuai پیش 7 ماه
You mean those level 5 monsters from dragon quest used to be real?
D Solis
D Solis پیش 7 ماه
2:21 why that music goes sooooo goood with a video about rodents??
Nobody McGee
Nobody McGee پیش 7 ماه
1 sentence in and i thought this video was gonna be about ROUS
Marcus Bartolo
Marcus Bartolo پیش 7 ماه
Ceratogaulus, the horniest gophers of all time.
Camilla Whatcott
Camilla Whatcott پیش 7 ماه
Everyone needs a house rhino
sagar singh
sagar singh پیش 7 ماه
Title should be "when rodents were horny"
Anthony Ware
Anthony Ware پیش 7 ماه
Kallie you are so punny!!
dejalpa1 پیش 7 ماه
Richard Orta
Richard Orta پیش 7 ماه
topics i think people would like to see rabbits and their relatives evolution the evolution of venom 7 poison
Andrew Stephan
Andrew Stephan پیش 7 ماه
I'd love an episode on how ears came to be!
ShadowLugia141 پیش 7 ماه
Can you guys do an episode on the Wrangel Island Mammoths? It’s pretty cool to think that the last mammoths lasted until only 4,000 years ago
TWINZ پیش 7 ماه
I really like your videos and am interested in studying evolution, what curriculum did you guys do to study in that field ? Any advices?
Noukz پیش 7 ماه
Oh my, you made me tear up in the end...X'D
TorebeCP پیش 7 ماه
Maybe they had vertical burrows and used their horns to climb them by pushing with their legs against the wall and the horns against the opposing wall.
Pengulin پیش 7 ماه
Your videos never dissapoint
Rick Loftus
Rick Loftus پیش 7 ماه
Thank you for acknowledging that fossil hunting often occurred, and occurs, on the lands of indigenous people without those peoples’ consent or recognition.
Peter Timowreef
Peter Timowreef پیش 7 ماه
You're gonna defend yourself against a hawk with a 3 centimeter horn? No wonder they're extinct.
Shane Michael Kelley
Shane Michael Kelley پیش 7 ماه
Pretty cool! 👍🏻👍🏻💙
Fisch پیش 7 ماه
Does anyone know how dinosaurs got beaks after the KT extinction when turning into birds? And i mean was there a type of metamorphosis, or did the beak no-clip through a snout or how did that work
Cambapo پیش 7 ماه
What about the diversity of life right before the KT event?
Kathryn Harper
Kathryn Harper پیش 7 ماه
Really enjoying your content! These videos kinda make me wish I had added a science major so I could have a science AND a history teaching license! I have an idea about how to further translate these videos into cross-curricular instruction and understanding. I am fascinated by the maps your videos sometimes contain that demonstrate the geologic changes that underpin paleontology. What I wish existed was a website that had not just static maps, but an interactive interface that allowed a user to control a toggle that moved through Earth's history (with the timeline broken down into geologic time). A user could see the world as it looked at (ideally) any point in Earth's history, with as much of the current continents outlined as possible (like these sites: dinosaurpictures.org/ancient-earth#0; www.scotese.com/.) Geologic features, like place names relevant to the time period , would be labelled. Additionally, there would be a column on the side that pulled up videos that were tagged as pertaining to a particular part of Earth's timeline that users could scroll through. I think it's so much more impactful to be able to play around with a map, and see the changes over time and make connections to the evolution of life in that particular environment, as well as be able to see the consequences of those changes play out in later contexts, which not all videos highlight. I'm pretty gung ho about this, and would be pleased to offer further insight or feedback into how this could look, so please don't hesitate to reach out.
camilo montes
camilo montes پیش 7 ماه
Veggieboy Ultimate
Veggieboy Ultimate پیش 7 ماه
It just goes to show you, evolution can produce some pretty weird animals.
John Skardasis
John Skardasis پیش 7 ماه
Could you talk about how scientists studied fossilized mollusks to figure out how the climate of earth changed over time?
Vianyte پیش 7 ماه
Why did they evolve dual horns and not a single horn though?
Grim Gamer
Grim Gamer پیش 7 ماه
Digging would %100 be for digging it would probably be none other better so good at digging
Alex Jones
Alex Jones پیش 7 ماه
Make more merch. Please.
Bushra Bandenawaz
Bushra Bandenawaz پیش 7 ماه
Hey mammals millions of years ago were different, and they evolved into us. What would dinosaurs look like if they did not go, you know.... extinct. Would they have have found a way of civilising the world. Would they develop the same smartness of humans?
Daniel Olsen
Daniel Olsen پیش 7 ماه
Demon rodent!
rattyeely پیش 7 ماه
These guys look like Digimon
PanzerZak پیش 7 ماه
Very happy that the Indians allowed paleontologists to dig for nice fossils in their back- and frontyard!
Shandon Matsumoto
Shandon Matsumoto پیش 7 ماه
That one shot with the chipmunk having food stuck on his nose! ;D
Zander Morrison
Zander Morrison پیش 7 ماه
Do a video on the Orrin’s!!!
Ramakrishnan Jagannathan
Ramakrishnan Jagannathan پیش 7 ماه
Do you guys know that the nautilus is still alive 😮
Greg Williams
Greg Williams پیش 7 ماه
Interesting video, with their fat little bodies I imagine they often were preyed upon raptors and the smaller cats and dog ancestors in the area.
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